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Subatomic particles that go to make up the molecules that make up us and everything around us. Investigate the nature and characteristics of subatomic particles, therefore, it is a bit like "digging into it", not this time in a psychological sense, but in a physical and chemical sense.
Subatomic particles: chemistry
They study mainly in Chemistry, although in Physics they are often consulted having a fundamental role when it comes to calculate forces and charges. Subatomic particles are all those make up the atoms and they can be elementary or compound.
Subatomic particles: what they are
They are the bricks of atoms, the elementary ones are six quarks, six leptons and twelve bosons, while the compound ones can be described as bound states of elementary particles. They can be baryons or mesons and include hadrons, composed of quarks, antiquarks and gluons.
Elementary subatomic particles
Let's explore the characteristics of subatomic particles elementary schools by seeing them one by one. Quarks are fermions subject to strong interaction and have six "flavors", we have the Quark up (u) with +2/3 charge, the down (d) with charge -1/3, on Quark strange / sideways (s) with charge -1/3 and the charm (c) with +2/3 of charge, finally the Quark bottom / beauty (b) with charge -1/3 and the top / truth (t) with +2/3 of charge.
Let's move on to leptons which are always six and are described as fermions subject to weak interaction. We have the Electron (-1) with its electronic Neutrino, the Muon (–1), with its muon neutrino, and the tau (–1) with its tau neutrino. THE gauge bosons there are 12, there is the photon, with eight gluons and the 3 bosons W and Z, they are the subatomic particles responsible for three of the four fundamental interactions, respectively electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force.
Subatomic particles: list
At subatomic particles composed so far we have only mentioned, so let's see what the two categories contain, that of -baryons and that of Mesons. In the first there are the Nucleons, composed of three quarks belonging to the first generation, called protons (two up quarks and one down quark), neutron (two down quarks and one up quark), perons (all other combinations of three quarks or three antiquarks.
Always among the Nucleons we find the exotic Baryons, composed of more than three quarks / antiquarks, and i Pentaquark, composed of five quarks. In the second category of compound subatomic particles, that of mesons, that is bosons composed of a quark and an antiquark having opposite color charge, we find i mesons q-antiq, composed of a quark and an antiquark, the non-q-antiq or exotic mesons and tetraquark, made up of four quarks.
Subatomic particles: discovery
The discovery of subatomic particles it arrived thanks to the fact that, after the second half of the 1800s, people began to doubt that the atom was indivisible. A group of scientists, even separately, investigating the nature of electrical phenomena, was seized by strong doubts observing some "things" that did not return with the idea of an atom "all in one piece".
For example, they realized that some substances in water dissolved forming solutions that carry electric current to the presence of ions and that the rarefied gases inside a tube containing two electrodes connected to an electric generator produced, following the passage of electric current, direct radiation from the cathode to the anode (cathode rays).
Subatomic particles and atom
From observation to observation, from study to study, many models of the atom have been developed. The first, perhaps, or at least the first mentioned in history, is that of Thomson. In 1904 this scientist described the atom as one spherical mass with positive electric charges uniformly distributed and containing an equal number of electrons, so that the whole was electrically neutral.
Now that we know that subatomic particles exist this may seem ridiculous, but Thomson paved the way for more modern and true to reality models such as that of Rutherford in which we find the atom formed by a nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, around which electrons are arranged.
Subatomic particles and teleportation
Until recently, until before the great discovery made by researchers in Sweden, the phenomenon of teleportation was the stuff of movies or from…. Subatomic particles!
What am I talking about? Let's take a step back. The teleportation Einstein had already guessed, in 1935, as far as quantum states of particles were concerned. In this case it is a mechanism based on the entanglement principle and that makes us say how particles could influence each other through space and time.
Einstein's intuition was demonstrated with sacred trappings by a physical group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in the USA in 2015 but it always remained within the sphere of subatomic particles. Only now, with the new discoveries of the group of physicists of the OtaNano National Research Center for Micro and Nanotechnologies, Sweden, we can say that teleportation is not just a thing from subatomic particles or movies.
These scholars have fabricated two mechanical micro oscillators, they cooled them to form a superconducting circuit and used microwaves to resonate the oscillators by emitting ultrasound. They observed, after 4 years of experiments, the quantum entanglement between the two oscillators and with their discovery they showed how teleportation can also be considered at the level of macroscopic quantum mechanics.
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